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I agree that you’d need to make sure you have an edition with a set of good maps unless you find something online to consult regularly. As far as translations go, I’ve used Crawley the most, but don’t have a strong opinion. In my opinion, the choice of translation is much more critical for works of poetry.
My understanding is that there’s no significant self-conscious “Palestinian identity” until the influx of Jewish immigrants and declaration of a Jewish state.
Lattimore’s translation is very good. I’ve also enjoyed Stanley Lombardo’s and Robert Fagles’s translations.
James, that’s essentially correct. Muslim encroachment on Christian territory had been happening continuously since the seventh century, but the Seljuk attack on the Byzantine Empire is an important short-term cause of the First Crusade.
Aristocra, the name “Palestine” is linked to the ancient Philistines. In the modern era, the British used the name to refer to the region in the 19th and 20th centuries that they later occupied after the Ottoman defeat in World War I.
Sorry about the slow reply!
I expect this a reference to the famous “March to the Sea” in which Xenophon participated and which he recorded in Book IV of his “Anabasis.” 10,000 Greek soldiers were stranded in Persian territory after a battle, and they had to fight their way out over hundreds of miles. Does the context of the passage lend itself to this interpretation?
The reason we deal with Greeks by themselves or Romans by themselves is that they were distinct civilizations for centuries. But in the Middle Ages, political units like France, England, etc., were part of a common civilization, so it makes sense to talk about them as a group. The only time this might get confusing as far as I can tell is when you’re trying to learn about the particular political history of a region. The broader cultural and religious features are shared for the most part.
I’m not sure where this person got the 1511 date. I learned in grad school that the Poor Laws were Elizabethan in origin.
You can see a more detailed chronology with some of the key points of legislation at this pro-welfare-state site: http://www.workhouses.org.uk/poorlaws/oldpoorlaw.shtml
As you can see, nothing before 1601 called for any taxation. The 1601 legislation looks like it’s directed toward people who would fall outside the fraternal system. The taxation was done at a local level, as was the administering of assistance through the parish church.
Most conservatives and libertarians see the churches and voluntary associations as the appropriate dispensers of aid to the poor, and that’s what happened here. The complicating factor is that the Church of England was controlled by the state, so the argument can be made that there was a crowding-out effect on the church side.
The assertion that the Poor Laws were passed because “private charity didn’t handle the problem” is dubious. For one thing, the legislation doesn’t say that. For another, you could just as easily argue that the preexisting restrictions on the movements and wages of laborers created or exacerbated the problem of unemployment in various localities. In other words, the Poor Laws can be interpreted as a response to a problem previous legislation had created.
You may be thinking about the Mesopotamia lecture when I talked about the significance of the Agricultural Revolution.
By the way, my recorded discussion of Columbus is in Lecture 8 of the Western Civilization Since 1500 course.
Columbus was extremely important. His voyages initiated permanent and sustained contact between the eastern and western hemispheres. His accomplishments brought about enormous political, religious, economic, and social developments in both hemispheres.
Even his detractors recognize his importance; they just don’t want him to be celebrated because they think his impact was largely negative.
Both approaches have their advantages. Reading allows more opportunity for pausing and reflecting, but listening to an audio version with a skilled narrator is very valuable.
I have listened to several ancient Greek works narrated by Charlton Griffin; I think his voice is fantastic. Here’s his unabridged reading of the Iliad: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B001PU0UOA/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=B001PU0UOA&linkCode=as2&tag=thewesttrad-20
If you’d prefer an abridged Iliad read by Shakespearean actor Derek Jacobi, try this performance of the Fagles translation, which is quite good: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B004H1Y0RW/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=9325&creativeASIN=B004H1Y0RW&linkCode=as2&tag=thewesttrad-20
You can find comparable renderings of the Odyssey as well. These links have samples so you can hear a few minutes of the narration.
I hope this helps!
You may find this article from the online Catholic encyclopedia helpful: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04264a.htm
It has references to several important figures and documents making some sort of pronouncement about consanguinity in canon law.
If you want to focus on religious differences, you can write about the 5th-century controversy over the nature of Christ (discussed at the Council of Chalcedon). There’s also the filioque controversy and the Photian schism, off the top of my head.
Yes, private institutions are justified in having such rules. I think F.I.R.E. and similar organizations focus their criticisms on state schools.
Of course, private schools that have codes of this sort are vulnerable to charges of hypocrisy if they claim to favor free and open discussion of controversial issues.