Apportionment is a standard topic in math for liberal arts courses. Usually a few different historical methods are highlighted. Here is an example chapter from an open source textbook: http://www.opentextbookstore.com/mathinsociety/2.5/Apportionment.pdf
Apparently Congress passed an apportionment bill in 1791 including Hamilton’s method, but Jefferson convinced Washington to veto it. Most texts imply this was a political decision because Virginia would get an extra seat using Jefferson’s method. I would be curious to know of any sources explaining mathematical rationales behind each side of this debate, or any of the apportionment methods that have been used.