Hi Patricia, I’m so sorry that I’m so late in replying. This is my fault, not Tom’s. I’ll be much better in the future.
Anyway. . . to try to answer your question. I’m no economist, but I’m taking the idea of a managerial state from James Burnham as well as from George Orwell (who took it from Burnham). The difference, as I understand it, is that while all socialisms are managerial, not all managerial states are socialist. That is, a crony capitalist state can be just as managerial. This seems to be the natural outgrowth a society experiences after leaving the relationships and relational associations found in the pre-modern period. As we bureacratize as a people, it matters little whether we do so as socialists or capitalists. Still, I’d recommend a great book by David Wrobel (can’t remember the title right now) which explores the relationship of Frederick Jackson Turner and FDR. Hope this helps.