As the OP noted, it is indeed intuitive to think that an increase in atmospheric CO2 might cause warming temperatures, through the well-known greenhouse effect. However, as also noted above, the evidence is much stronger that temperature changes in fact drive changes in CO2 concentration. And given this, it is IMPOSSIBLE that CO2 is also driving temperature. If this were the case, we would have long ago seen a runaway feedback loop leading to the destruction of all life on earth.
I highly recommend watching the YouTube video of Murry Salby’s presentation in Hamburg last year:
It takes him barely over an hour to comprehensively blow the entire man-made climate change hypothesis out of the water. If you don’t like math, you can skip the first half-hour without missing too much, though be aware that this section contains some important material on interpreting the proxy record.