While I do not know if a Consitutional amendment for internal improvments was attempted, I will say I would assume an amendment was never attempted because many States wouldn’t have wanted an internal improvments amendment.
The reason being is because internal improvements, say a railroad in New York or a road in Louisiana would specifically benefit that particular State where the said improvement was made at the monetary expense (think tax money from the *national* treasury) of the other States. This is one of the prime reasons why internal improvments is shot down in the Philadelphia Convention. Beyond that, that’s all I know and can say for sure. The professors will have to help you from here if my answer is unsatisfactory. Pick up professor McClanahan’s book The Foinding Fathers Guide to the Constitution as it has some pages on the debates over internal improvments in both the PC and the ratifying conventions. I believe Dr. Gutzman’s PIG to the Constitution also discuss the topic as well.