It’s funny. I’m Eastern Orthodox, and I’m more curious if there are any modern respected NT scholars that take this view? I’m pretty sure no CF did. Other than Augustine, Cyprian seems to have a pretty libertarian understanding of the state. But I don’t think he took this view. The book Ceasar and the Lamb by George Kalantzis has a lot of interesting stuff on the pre-Constantinian view of the state.
The most plausible view of Rom. 13 that I’ve heard is Pastor Larry Beane’s. Here’s his interview on the Tom Woods show. http://tomwoods.com/ep-767-romans-13-does-it-mean-christians-cant-be-libertarians/