Like any other price, the purchasing power of money (which is the inverse of the prices of goods and services) depends on both demand and supply. Changes in the money stock and the demand to hold money determine changes in the purchasing power of money (which is the inverse of price inflation-deflation).
Here is a discussion of the TMS including links to a few charts:
Here is one of the TMS charts:
Here are more charts:
The BLS began to compute gross output in 2014. Its series only goes back to 2012: